Environmental Impact Assessment Project Report for Proposed Construction of Water and Sanitation Structures in Bangale, Tana North Sub-County, Tana River County

About the publication

  • Published: September 2015
  • Series: --
  • Type: NGO reviews
  • Carried out by: Odhiambo Ken K’Oyooh
  • Commissioned by: --
  • Country: Kenya
  • Theme: Climate and environment, Water supply and sanitation
  • Pages: 80
  • Serial number: --
  • ISBN: --
  • ISSN: --
  • Organization: Norwegian Lutheran Mission
  • Local partner: Scripture Mission East Africa (SMEA)
  • Project number: QZA-12/0763-93
NB! The publication is ONLY available online and can not be ordered on paper.


The project proponent SMEA aims to improve access to clean water and sanitation among the residence of Tana North Sub-county and its environs by rehabilitating existing dams, and building water cisterns in designated points near villages.

This is a noble course that when completed successfully, will alleviate perennial water problem in the region and improve sanitation among the community members for sustainable development.

However, Kenya government, through NEMA recognizes that such projects may have certain negative impacts to the community and environment in general. This is why NEMA demands that an EIA is conducted before such projects are implemented.


The main objective of this exercise was to assess the biophysical, socio-economical and human health consequences of the proposed water and sanitation projects both in the construction, operation and maintenance phases.

The specific objectives of this exercise were

  • To assess the adverse environmental impacts of the project both negative and positive
  • To advise the proponent on appropriate mitigation measures for significant negative biophysical and socio economic impacts anticipated from the project, including the need for proper and functioning committee for the management of the facilities for sustainability among other things.
  • To develop an Environmental Management Plan to guide the construction and operation phase of the project with a mechanism for monitoring and evaluation


The project’s EIA process involved the use of various data collection methods and techniques to acquire the information available, which enabled the EIA research team to gather data within the key project locations and their surroundings. The various data collection methods used includes key informant interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs), site visits and observation, photography, and desktop environmental studies.
The EIA exercise took a period of twenty eight (28) days, with the lead expert coordinating the day-to-day activities of his team, with the help of project proponent’s representatives.

The general process during the exercise was as follows:

  • Environmental screening, which identified the proposed projects as within the scope of an EIA exercise in accordance with schedule 2 of EMCA 1999
  • Environmental scoping, which revealed key environmental issues
  • Desktop studies of environmental issues in the region
  • Focus group discussions (FGDs) and interviews with key informants
  • Physical visits of the sites and making observation of the surrounding areas

The EIA exercise was concluded by the consultant compiling a report in accordance with NEMA guidelines. The report was handed over to the project proponent for Consideration and approval. During this exercise, the consultant consistently briefed the client on the progress.

Key findings

Availing safe water and sanitation to Bangale community will not only reduce the risks of water borne diseases but also provide the community with water security and livelihood.

Availing portable water in the villages and school compound will improve pupils’ health and enable the community at large to generate some income by selling of water to residence.

The latrines on the other hand will be a convenience to community and school pupils, and save learning time amongst other benefits mentioned in chapter five of this report.

At the same time section of the project might have adverse impacts that might affect smooth project implementation. Although insignificant, the adverse project impacts should not be overlooked and should be attended to as outlined in the EMP


  • Sensitize community on pump handling
  • Pump maintenance to be often done as per manufactures specification
  • Waste water to from the borehole should be channeled in a soak pit for sub sequent use in watering vegetations planted to protect the soil around water points and channels.
  • Follow the EMP and monitor for any other unmentioned impact
  • Follow up on cleanliness of the latrines


Published 21.06.2016
Last updated 21.06.2016